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AI and Gender Equality on Twitter

Twitter is currently the most popular social media platform for expressing opinions in Thailand. This study is driven by a primary question: How has Twitter's AI algorithm contributed to raising the awareness of gender equality in Thai society between 2020 and 2022?

Published onFeb 07, 2023
AI and Gender Equality on Twitter

AI and Gender Equality on Twitter

Woratep Wongsuppakan


Twitter is currently the most popular social media platform for expressing opinions in Thailand. Especially, Twitter has become increasingly relevant to Thai political rallies between 2020 and 2022. Various people were involved in the movement against General Prayut Chan-o-cha (the current Thai Prime Minister) and toward monarchical reform. These demands included cultural-political reforms and many other issues. As well, there are movements that address gender equality issues, which oppose Thai society’s patriarchal culture and patriarchal bias. These include attacking sexual harassment, allowing same-sex marriage, drafting legislation for the protection of people working in the sex industry, and promoting the availability of free sanitary napkins for women. Twitter is one of the movements of the group, which provides information about various issues related to the movement. There has been a new generation of alliances and new groups of people who are taking an interest in the issue of gender equality. Thus, Twitter’s AI technology is currently playing an important role in the movement for gender equality in Thai society.

The purpose of the study is to examine the role of Twitter’s artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm in shaping the perceptions of users of Twitter and society. In particular, the study will be relevant to gender equality issues. It is anticipated that the study will help us better understand the role that AI technology plays in gender equality and gender diversity in Thai society. This will increase awareness of the role of AI in coexistence in a gender-equal society. The main question is: how does Twitter's AI algorithm contribute to raising the awareness of gender equality in Thai society between 2020 and 2022?

Conceptual Framework

Twitter is a microblogging service based on text. There is a space for users to post their opinions and thoughts in the “What’s happening?” gap, calling each one a ‘Tweet’. Tweets may contain up to 280 characters, images, video clips, and links to various websites. Tweets or other activities of other users will appear in the feed, which is a page that displays the content of things we follow. We can take action, such as comment, like, share, and retweet. The chronological order of content reflects current interests. The ‘Twitter Trends’ feature allows us to follow people whose interests are similar to ours. They can be found with ranked search terms based on a hashtag (#) or the daily searched terms by the minute. Regardless of whether the search is national or global in scope, it can be found.

Since 2017, Twitter has improved how users’ feeds are organized using artificial intelligence. Therefore, it can influence the display of content in various ways, for example, to change how a feed is displayed. ‘The Top Tweet’ of each individual differs depending on the activities they have done on Twitter. This application uses A.I. to provide ‘Twitter Trends’, ‘Topics’, ‘Who to Follow’, ‘Where to Find Friends’, ‘How to Find Suggestions’, ‘Browse Interests’, and many other ‘Twitter recommendations’. Twitter has integrated AI into its operations. AI can be used to combat hate speech, crop photos to reveal the most interesting bits, and tweet or retweet for specific purposes to comply with Twitter’s rules. Twitter has a responsibility to provide timely updates on what is happening in the real world. AI-generated highest-rated tweets are determined both by the number of retweets compared to a period as well as by the frequency of using the hashtag. When Twitter displays content on its feed, it considers several factors, including

1) The presence of image or video in the tweet and number of likes.

2) The user’s past interactions with the one who tweeted.

3) User’s history of likes and retweets and the time spent on Twitter. (Sagar 2019)

Consequently, Twitter's AI algorithms play a key role in manipulating, controlling, and shaping social perceptions by prioritizing its feeds. The system provides a more content-focused presentation than Facebook’s timeline sorting, which assigns a relevance score to each tweet. Relevance scores indicate how likely it is that users will find a tweet of interest. As a result, tweets with a higher relevance score will be more visible.

In ‘The Birth of Biopolitics: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1978-79’ (Foucault, 2008), Michel Foucault described the technology of regulation and explained the power of biopolitics through the concept of bio-power. A political system based on Neo-liberalism is known as government by governmentality, or government through creating subjectivity in established knowledge and truth. The individual’s subjectivity is passed on to the family and circulates throughout society. Twitter’s AI algorithm is considered to perform the same function as a government in influencing the perception of those under its control. The use of Twitter can generate interest in a subject by determining its perception, such as generating trends by spinning hashtags until people’s attention is drawn to them. It is sometimes possible to simulate human activity by using bots (or robots, computer programs that work as agents for a user or for another program) to tweet and retweet content for specific purposes on a large scale to reproduce and spread information. AI can also play an important role in managing the display of content on Twitter. It leads to the ability to control one’s own or other’s actions as part of a social process of exclusion, division, and rejection described by Foucault.

The DataReport website indicates that Thailand had 12.75 million email addresses on Twitter users in January 2022, ranking 10th globally. (Kemp, 2022) This is approximately double the number of Twitter users, which numbered only 4.70 million in 2019. (Kemp 2019). Most of the group members are younger than the users of Facebook because Twitter is an anonymous service, no explicit interaction is necessary. As opposed to Facebook, users must register and maintain a network of relationships. In most cases, posting on Facebook is used as a means to express one’s thoughts under acceptable conditions among friends and family. Consequently, young people tend to prefer other social networking sites. On Twitter, everyone is free to express what they wish, irrespective of their social status and relationships in real life. This is regardless of any social structures, such as laws, customs, traditions, culture, and values that exist in Thai society. In the study “Facebook and Twitter usage in forming the Bad Student Group to demand education reform in 2020” (Chainon and Sasithon 2022), the author describes how the ‘Bad Student Group’ (another political activist group during the study period) advocated communication in the public sphere, as understood by Jurgen Habermas. For example, communication involves a gathering for a common goal in a space free from the power and leads to a movement in public spaces. (Chainon and Sasithon 2022, 119-122).

In studying the role of Twitter’s AI algorithm here, the authors wish to investigate the emotional effects of gender equality content in Twitter feeds as powered by AI algorithms. Consequently, the method of analysis is in the style of affect theory, which aims to study social phenomena from an emotional perspective. This approach to the study of social phenomena can be seen in the theories of communication, and cultural studies, such as those of Lawrence Grossberg, Brian Massumi, Sarah Ahmed, Gernot Bohme, and Zizi Papacharissi. One of the analytical methods that will be employed to assess the effects of Twitter’s AI algorithm is the analysis of words or the language contained in tweets. In ‘The Cultural Politics of Emotion’ (Ahmed 2004), Sara Ahmed discusses the close reading text method in connection with the study of words used to express feelings, the circulation of emotion, and how words are moved. Emotions reveal how a person interacts with the social context. There is a way to trace the logic of feelings by analyzing their structure, and their relationship to stereotypes or belief systems (Reidner 2004, 705). According to the observation of the use of words on Twitter, many vulgar words are indicative of hate. Such words are presented in an insulting, degrading manner. As a result, understanding the emotional content of the text is a helpful way of understanding how Twitter’s AI algorithm affects gender equality awareness, especially from an emotional perspective. 

Research Methodology

The study was conducted using Twitter data between the years 2020 and 2022. By analyzing Twitter hashtags and Tweets related to gender equality. The purpose of this study is to find out how Twitter's feed is impacted by A.I. algorithms. Additionally, it will be a documentary study based on articles, research papers, and theses. According to the Affect theory framework, it is possible to answer how Twitter’s AI algorithm impacts perceptions of gender equality in Thai society in the emotional domain.

Research Results

To use AI algorithms to determine which tweets users want to see most. It is an analysis of natural language processing and algorithm rankings. It analyzes thousands of tweets per second to determine which tweets are most likely to interest users. Twitter's most relevant tweets based on this behavior appear first rather than chronologically. An anonymous twitter system enables users to express their emotions without worrying about their impact in real life. A 280-character limit on each tweet means Twitter is not a place for logically explicit information. The site is a place to share emotions and thoughts when they are fresh, and Twitter’s AI algorithm can be controlled and manipulated in many ways. In Thai society between the years 2020 and 2022, Twitter plays a key role in organizing, learning, making decisions, organizing groups, disseminating emotions and feelings, and driving and controlling social and political issues.

Twitter’s Hashtag

During the study, a sample of hashtags related to gender equality was selected. Listed below are the Twitter hashtags associated with gender equality presentations.

Table 1 the hashtags related to gender equality in Thai society from 2020-2022.




The hashtag originated with the sexual harassment behavior of American actors. In Thai society, they use this hashtag to describe the experience of various types of sexual harassment.


The hashtag focuses on exposing and resisting the sexual harassment behavior of a deputy leader of a political party.


In this hashtag, activists who are interested in the rights of LGBTQ+ people can organize gender diversity campaigns and public relations activities.

#LiberatedFeminists and #LiberatedWomen

Content on gender inequality issues, women's rights, and gender equality activities.


A performance by women and youths, which oppose patriarchal values in Thai society and politics.


Support equal rights for same-sex marriages.

#SellingYourselfIsNotACrime and #SexWorkerIsNotACriminal

The content focuses on the rights claims of people working in the sex industry.


This content supports the claim that sanitary napkins are a basic right of women.


It refers to the decision to elect the governor of Bangkok by 2022 based on a policy that supports safe abortions.


Hashtags related to people interested in gender equality issues or feminist ideas moving on the issue of gender equality on Twitter.

#FemTwittIsSocialTrash and #FemTwittIsSocialClown

Hashtags associated with anti-Fem-Twitt movements.

Most hashtags consist of simple words, phrases, and short messages, but some are in the English language as well. Sample hashtags related to gender equality can be classified into four categories: 1) anti-sexual harassment, 2) groups for sharing ideas and collaborating on gender equality activities, 3) presentations of gender equality demands, and 4) retaliation for the controversy surrounding gender equality.

A hashtag is a helpful tool for grouping and unifying issues to get a quick response. Although quick responses may lead to unclear misunderstandings or lead the spread of fake news, the benefit of using hashtags to group content of this type is that people with similar interests can quickly gather. A hashtag, such as ‘#LiberatedFeminist’ or ‘#LiberatedWomen’, is used to refer to content that addresses issues of gender equality or opposes patriarchal culture. The group joins the anti-government parties and support the monarchical reform. ‘Liberation Youth Group’ is not only an association of people interested in political movements and issues related to gender equality. According to “Twitter virtual community self-presentation connection the group with diverse sexual tastes” (Benjarong 2021), Twitter has the potential to bring people together because 1) it allows you to express yourself through images, videos, and words; 2) Twitter's algorithm is effective in bringing together LGBTQ+ people, and anonymity adds a sense of security. (Benjarong 2021, 406-408) Even though the LGBTQ+ community is underrepresented in the real world. The anonymity of Twitter provides greater opportunities for LGBTQ+ people to communicate and unite.

Groups of individuals with similar interests are more likely to be able to unite on common issues that no one has any authority over. Providing various sexual harassment content, and presenting it concisely, has an impact on the user's emotions. Many images evoke a response from people, and it has become a trend that encourages them to talk or have discussions related to that issue. A relevant example is the anti-sexual harassment trend, ‘#Metoo’, and ‘#DeputyPartyLeader’, to emphasize the need to criminalize sexual harassment and share information about it. For instance, the demand for equal marriage, abortion is safe, and sex workers are endorsed and protected. When a hashtag is trending on Twitter at any given moment, it is a reflection of the sentiments of the Twitter community. The following are some examples of the message that appears at the top of this presentation.

19 September 2020 “My Body My Choice” #LiberatedWomen #19SeptemberTakesPowerBackToThePeople (Accessed 4 June 2022)

2 June 2022 “Love is Love” #EqualMariage #pridemonth #pridemonth2022 (Accessed 4 June 2022)
2 June 2022 “Every love deserves equal rights”. #EqualMariage #pridemonth #pridemonth2022 (Accessed 4 June 2022)

2 June 2022 “The campaign almost died, in the end, the powerful people didn’t think to fix it. Those who are aware will continue to be aware. No one ever does anything for others, they remain indifferent, and still don’t understand the problem. More importantly, what time of the day is it? Look at people as equals.” #EqualMarriage #pridemonth (Accessed 4 June 2022)

16 April 2021 “Let's stop labeling Karee (a Thai word for prostitution in vulgar language). #SellingBodyNotACrime #Sexworkiswork #Decriminalizesexworker #GenderDiversityMediaPartner. Let's stop believing this. 'Karee is a low job, Karee is separating from his parents, husband; only lazy people are Karee', invites you to read more. ……….” (Accessed 4 June 2022)

27 February 2022 “Let's come. Workers' union event #WorkersFest #Workers' Union our services are the same. Let's not eliminate sex workers' rights. #ServiceIsAJob #Sexworkiswork #SellingBodyIsNotACrime” (Accessed 3 June 2022)

 3 May 2022 "Our bodies are not yours, or your state. Laws contaminate karee... the right to an individual's body is the most sacred. #SexWorkFashionWeek #SexWorkFasionWeek2022 #SexWorkPride #DecentSexWork #SexWorkIsWork #SellingBodyIsNotACrime #AbolishThePreventionAndSuppressionOfProstitutionAct1996 (Accessed 3 June 2022)

When considering the various tweets addressed by these hashtags. The tweets that are displayed at the top are usually short messages or phrases. Most of the languages used in hashtags are those that generate a lot of interest. This includes the use of strong emotional words, vulgar language, or words that are reflective of the social context. The tweet in ‘#SexWorkerIsNotACriminal’ uses the word ‘Karee’, which is an emotive word that encompasses many emotions assembled in Thai society (dirty, evil, shame and disgusting). Generally speaking, prostitution is an insult, and it tends to diminish the dignity of people. Language motivates large groups of people to engage and make it possible to process the presentation as much as possible. Ahmed refers to the use of language in this manner as the emotion words. (Ahmed 2004, 13) When this type of language is used, the content is presented to a wider audience than simple phrasing of long rational explanations.

AI algorithms have made the presentation of content on Twitter more open and free because anyone can express their opinions regardless of their social or economic status. Thai society has a hierarchical importance structure based on social status, economic, age and gender. Social media platforms, such as Twitter, have broken down these hierarchies. Zizi Papacharissi says, “Twitter platform as it facilitates the burgeoning of alternative space for grassroots political activism during times of heightened political and economic crisis.” (Papacharissi 2015, 69) Many times some presentations in Thai society cannot be done independently, for example, on issues related to the monarchy or authority, in the Twitter space, and those fears have subsided because of the various comments. As it was found that from 2020 to 2022, Twitter has become a public space for expressing their opinions, because Twitter is better at hiding the identity of the commentator. People can use sarcasm to mock those in power who allow the public sector to express their views and participate in politics and in their courage to criticize those in power and express their opinions on a wide range of issues.

According to Papacharissi, Twitter is a mechanism for re-creating stories. Journalists have done more than simply report on events as they unfold. However, it appears to be a story that has been recreated from the tweets that have captured the emotion surrounding the event. The essence of news stories rather than the events themselves is what Papacharissi calls ‘Affective News’ since the information is communicated via Twitter. This space is fluid and inclusive of diversity in its context. (Papacharissi 2015, 39) Lastly, Twitter combines emotion with opinion and drama with fact to convey deeply subjective accounts and interpretations of events as they unfolded. (Papacharissi 2015, 56) What appears on Twitter is a narrative that contains a number of elements surrounding the event of the tweet. These elements include the mood of the tweet at the time. Tweets have the effect of eliciting emotions to a variety of degrees. Collectively, as the subject of the issue, and to then pass this on to those who perceive and respond in the form of a progressively more intense effect. In addition, Twitter offers feeds that can be used in this manner. As a result, the emotions associated with the subject become more intense. This may lead to an increase in anger or hate speech. As an example, a variety of messages are used to oppose and condemn politicians for sexual harassment, such as ‘#MeToo’ and ‘#DeputyPartyLeader’.

14 April 2022 “It is an act of harassment against women.” Will it become a habit? You do it for many people, Repeatedly, Can’t fix, Barbaric, Can't control, Evil. #MeToo” (Accessed 5 June 2022)

14 April 2022 “The Cockroach Party. #DeputyPartyLeader" (Accessed 5 June 2022)

16 April 2022 “The scariest person... isn't an open-faced bastard. This person has two faces. Believe me, when I say that, this is the worst and most terrifying situation of all. #DeputyPartyLeader” (Accessed 5 June 2022)

The Feminist Movement on Twitter

In general, the activities of the gender equality movement tend to express strong emotions. An expression like this to garner attention from society is likely to lead to questions and provide a starting point for learning more about the issue. A similar expression is used in Thai society to address gender equality. Several feminist and gender diversity organizations will form a joint movement with other politically active groups. Such group movements are always eye-catching and draw the attention of the media and participants. As an example, different forms of cosplay were worn by the movement. The participants wore flashy, minimal clothes or even were naked as they scrawled messages about the rally's focus. In the same way, expressions of gender equality on Twitter, whether through pictures of the rally or video footage, are typically characterized by strong emotions to evoke the corresponding emotion.

On 21 November 2020, one of the protestors was dressed in a schoolgirl uniform. The following day, the image and stories were widely publicized. In the picture, the participants are depicted as female high school students with black bands covering their mouths. Her school uniform and body showed signs of abuse and bloodstains. She held up a sign that read, “I was abused by a teacher. The school is not a safe place.” The expression was intended to address the issue of sexual harassment and violence in schools. An interview with her revealed that five years ago she was subjected to indecent treatment by a teacher who tried to touch her chest and body. (Tunyaporn 2020) This image was published on social media, including on Twitter. The pictures are illustrative and are beneficial to movements for gender equality that often use emotionally provoking images to convey their messages. Regarding the use of digital images in online media, there are many instances like this in which the sentimental image evokes an emotional response from the viewer. The violence of this kind is evident in the image of ‘the woman in the blue bra.’ This image represents the violence committed by the Egyptian militia against its people, or the image of 'the dead Alan Krudi'. This has triggered fighting on social media during the refugee crisis in Syria. The picture became viral on social media, triggering a response on social media. As a result of the widespread dissemination of digital images, images generated a powerful force that mobilized people's emotions (Riley 2020).

‘#SidaLuiFai’ is one of the most frequently used hashtags by gender equality activists. Its content consists mostly of images and videos. They sing together with the song ‘Sida Lui Fai’ (Sida through fire), which is an adaptation of the melody of the Chilean protest song ‘Un amigo en tu camino’ (A friend along your journey). A feminist protest group in Thailand changed the original lyrics to reflect the patriarchal system in Thai society. (Orranee 2020) ‘Sida,’ or ‘Sita’ is the protagonist in Thai literature known as ‘Ramakian’. The story is adapted from ‘Ramayana’ (an epic from ancient India). In the story, Sida must prove herself that she is still a virgin by walking through the fire. Interestingly, lyrics sung in Thai play a significant role in expressing the ideas of those seeking to promote equality between men and women as they are tied together with the political movements of the period.

‘Sida Lui Fai’

We are born to be judged and devoured by the mighty man.

There is a regime invading us, and there is violence that you don't see. 

We are born to be suppressed, and we need to be modest around men. 

It is the belief that infests us, and it is the shame we must endure. 

I am the killer who is pretending to teach me how to crouch. 

You claim to teach me obedience, but you are the one who raped me!

Even anger cannot be expressed when you are the victim. 

Please join us this time in sharing the voice that we will no longer be slaves to the mighty man!

What will I do to become a bitch? Will I travel to? These are my concerns. (Repeat 4 times)

You are the one who raped me. (Repeat 2 times)

Police, soldiers, courts of justice, the whole country, institutions.

A state that ignores our voice is the state that rapes us. (Repeat 2 times)

You're the one who raped me.

You're the one who raped me.

You're the one who raped me.

You're the one who killed me. (Orranee 2020)

In a video posted on Twitter, the participants demonstrate their animosity towards the patriarchal political system. Language and some swear words, are used to convey a sense of anger and hatred for a patriarchal social, cultural, and political structure that undermines the rights and freedoms of women. Participants in the singing said: “Sida represents a woman who is being forced to prove herself, even though she has done nothing wrong.” Many people seem to agree with this concept and have agreed to use it as a symbolic name (Orranee 2020).

The phenomenon of ‘Fem-Twitt’ is a good example of how gender equality content is presented on Twitter. According to the BBC News Thai’s report, the term ‘Fem-Twitt’ (feminist + Twitter) originated from a Facebook group called ‘The sanctuary of Beou-chiphai’ (the sanctuary of awesome guys), a group in which participants are men who make fun of dirty sexual jokes. There is sexist content and some messages are supportive of sexual violence. Many examples include posting clips of men physically assaulting women and clips of LGBTQ+ people being bullied, and shamefully. It is acceptable for people in the group to participate in a parody of labeling by claiming freedom of expression. One sense in which the term ‘Fem-Twitt’ is employed is for mocking women who speak up about gender equality, particularly among the younger generation who utilize Twitter to discuss sexuality. (BBC NEWS THAI 2020) There are several Twitter accounts that use Twitter account names associated with the Fem-Twitt to present ideas and unite feminists on Twitter. For instance, the Twitter account ‘Feminist Liberation (Fem-Twitt)’ uses a message that summarizes the organization's main principles: “If you believe in gender equality and oppose all forms of sexual violence, you are not alone.”

There are pros and cons to how tweets are presented on Twitter. One of the positive aspects of Fem-Twitt is that it promotes equality and educates people regarding feminist concepts. The aim is to increase society’s awareness of gender inequality. During this period, the Fem-Twitt movement attempted to reflect the problem of the patriarchal society in Thailand. As a result of Twitter’s ranking of presentations, violent, disturbing, or profane messages were used. In situations where emotions are stimulated to gain attention, there is reengagement, which leads to drama. Particularly, tweets that retaliated against anti-groups. Several of Fem-Twitt misrepresented the concept of women’s rights. Until, it reveals itself to be sexist in reverse. An individual is harassed when their name is associated with a perpetrator of sexual harassment. Many hashtags refer to celebrities in society without providing any facts. The effects of hate speech, stereotypical reasoning, labeling, spreading rumors, and creating a trend to gain attention or create a demand for attention may affect the real life of the individual. For instance, someone within a group of Fem-Twitt used the opportunity to create hatred for others through violent retaliation. There was a period when ‘#FemTwittIsSocialTrash’ was a trending hashtag.

The perception that appeared on Twitter of both groups led to the term ‘Fem-Twitt’ developing a negative connotation, like a group of sexists themselves and raising awareness of the gender equality community by evoking strong emotions and feelings about the consequences of misleading content and methods. Fem-Twitt group expressed itself in the manner that tweets such as.

5 June 2020 “Some women are trash” “Raping machine”#StareAtBoopIsNotWrong #FemTwitt #StaringAtDickIsNotWrong (Accessed 3 June 2022)

13 October 2020 “How’bout Fem are trash? #FemTwittIsSocialTrash #femtwitt #FemTwittIsSocialClown #Feminists” (Accessed 3 June 2022)

15 March 2022 “Feminists Spread Hate Propaganda A LOT! #FemTwitt” (Accessed 3 June 2022)

13 October 2020 “All of this slut is just a trash of Fem-Twit, not a feminist #FemTwittsIsSocialTrash” (Accessed 3 June, 2022)

28 October 2021 “I'm not talking about …. (name of Thai celebrity), Because it looks creepy, but how stupid are these Femmes? You will never be a success in anything because of this retarded idiot, stupid. It’s a pleasure to be a normal person. So, why are you stubborn to become a stupid Femm." #FemTwittIsSocialTrash (Accessed 3 June 2022)

13 October 2020 “Fem-Twitt (noun) Feminists who engage in moral masturbation by threatening the lives of others using fallacious logic. Most of the time they aren't too discriminatory, and they don't test themselves too often. They insult those who disagree without any reasonable explanation.” They do not realize that no one likes their actions. (Accessed 4 June 2022)

12 May 2022, "Some Fem-Twitt in the three-finger movement (an anti-government movement in Thailand) do not advocate gender equality, but rather that they are privileged over others. What they did not possess as an advantage, they do not possess. Many of them hate men, and some are lesbians." #FemTwitt (Accessed 4 June 2022)

According to Ahmed, in terms of anger’s role in feminist movements, anger is an emotion widely associated with pain within feminist movements. To understand feminist politics, we must examine women’s experiences of violence, injury, and discrimination. Anger might make the feminist movement powerful, but it doesn’t always work. Because such an expression of feminism may obscure the claims made by feminists. This is even when the anger is a reasonable response to social injustice. As Ahmed asked, “What are the conditions of possibility for feminist anger to get a just hearing and how could we read the ‘sign’ of this justice in terms of action?” (Ahmed 2004, 177).

AI and gender equality awareness

Twitter’s AI algorithms manipulate the flow of effects on Twitter and amplify the expressions of different people. The interactions that people have with each other, such as news, events, tweets, likes, and shares, allow more information to be shared. This creates a kind of atmosphere within that group. Sometimes it is a separation between those within the community and those outside, which leads to the setting up of value standards and leads to satisfaction, pride, and a feeling of superiority. From the observations, Twitter users are likely exposed mainly to political opinions that agree with their own. It is the largest study to characterize ‘echo chambers’ of the content in them and their networks. Online communication is characterized by selective exposure, ideological segregation, and political polarization. People of different ideologies read and retweet each other's messages, and there are no significant differences between liberals and conservatives. The findings indicate a strong correlation between biases in the content people both produce and consume. Through these interactions, a kind of atmosphere is created more intensely over time (Barberá 2015).

Applying this concept to the issue of gender equality, AI algorithms have stimulated the flow of intense emotions and feelings. Twitter’s AI has increased the concept of gender equality and raised the issue of patriarchal society and politics in Thailand. According to the Fem-Twitt group, this group is either attempting to assert the values they wish to promote or anticipating their value as a misguided and extreme example of gender equality. There is a perception that Fem-Twitt is toxic, since they speak of gender equality in a way that is not accurate, or else a way to express anger, hatred, and disdain toward men. Expressions of gender equality can become even more harmful on Twitter when they are sexist.

In discussing masculine’s toxic and feminine’s toxic roles, we refer to the idea that certain people’s conception of ‘manliness’ perpetuates dominance, homophobia, and aggression, or the idea of ‘girliness’ that women must be ready to accept control or instruction (Morin 2020, Seven 2022). Men and women engage in both toxic masculinity and toxic femininity as a way of maintaining their value in society. It appears that both toxic masculinity and toxic femininity are two sides of the same coin. The undercurrent of power, however, exerts pressure on men to play an aggressive, violent, intimidating, and sexually dominant role. This leads women to seek to please those in power to avoid punishment and pain (Seven 2022). At schools, boys of all races and ethnicities who do not act ‘masculine enough’ may be harassed. It is particularly common for girls to be taught to be obedient and to suffer harassment (Morin 2020). In general, there are different ways in which toxicity relates to gender. Toxicity is a behavior that is detrimental to efforts to promote gender equality. Manifestations of masculinity lead them to engage in risky behaviors, such as heavy alcohol consumption, excessive tobacco consumption, and other risky behaviors as an expression of their masculinity. It has also been shown on a behavioral level that, as well as affecting females and society, some feminist expressions are affected. There is a problem with toxic sexuality because it limits how people feel comfortable expressing themselves. The most critical thing is to become aware of how gendered labels and stereotypes can inhibit us (Seven 2020).

In addition, regardless of whether society is pro-feminist or not, there is a negative perception toward those who advocate gender equality in the workplace. This results in the rejection and disregard of gender equality. The gender equality movement needs to adopt a viewpoint that encourages human equality and respectful coexistence, believes in diversity, and enables people to express themselves freely and unhindered. According to Chirstina Hughes (2002), equality is often regarded as having the assumed goal of the standard sex equality argument is that of equal performance or outcome. (Hughes 2002, 37) but equality will not require that people with different medical conditions are treated equally, with the same drug administered at the same dosage (Evans 1995, 163). She believes that equality should mean more acceptance and equal treatment of differences. It would be similar to a policy that creates equality through equal opportunity. As Peter Munroe says, “An understanding of male and female as distinctly different and complementary to an understanding of male and female as equal was a radical shift in gender ideology” (Munro 1998, 52).


There is a tendency to believe that AI has no social value and is unbiased. It is the creation or users of AI that gives it its value. AI algorithms are created based on a variety of histories, races, genders, and human characteristics. It cannot be avoided entirely. Analyzing the role of AI algorithms in the management of Twitter presentations has shown that, because of these algorithms, gender equality issues are being raised and discussed more frequently in Thailand. Even though Twitter’s content can be obscure, which results in some misunderstandings about gender equality, or is dominated by dramas and emotion, it may also contribute to violence, being out of control, or causing new problems due to its lack of contemplation. So, many Thai people have been exposed to gender equality through Twitter and have questioned patriarchal culture for the first time. In essence, Twitter is a democratic space where no one has complete control over what people post. Twitter’s rules allow free expression if it does not violate an individual or a group of people, or the other rules of Twitter. (Such as not engaging in the targeted harassment of someone, not promoting violence against, threatening, or harassing other people based on race, ethnicity, national origin, caste, sexual orientation, gender, gender identity, etc...) Ultimately, the objective is not to restrict access to Twitter, to limit, manipulate, or sacrifice the conditions in which Twitter can express its freedom. As a member of a community of users, one must also learn how to promote, or not promote something. They will be able to post more quality tweets if they cultivate a culture of positive opinion. Additionally, they should refrain from supporting hate speech and cyberbullying. Consequently, algorithms may manage the presentation of content, enabling Twitter to become a quality community and further advancing the cause of gender equality. But the most significant thing to note is that different opinions are part of any society. It is important to understand societies by looking at all differences fairly and reasonably.


Ahmed, Sarah. (2004), The Cultural Politics of Emotion, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

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