Skip to main content
SearchLoginLogin or Signup

Gender Stereotypes and Service Robotics and Artificial Intelligence Industries in Thailand

The world may soon have more robots than humans. The benefits of robotics and AI are significant as they can drive efficiency, innovation, and cost-savings for businesses or individual’s daily life.

Published onApr 16, 2024
Gender Stereotypes and Service Robotics and Artificial Intelligence Industries in Thailand
·

Gender Stereotypes and Service Robotics
and Artificial Intelligence Industries in Thailand

Khaorop Thongthep1

Introduction

The world may soon have more robots than humans. The benefits of robotics and AI are significant as they can drive efficiency, innovation, and cost-savings for businesses or individual’s daily life.

As a part of the global citizen, Thailand is transforming into Thailand industry 4.0 with several supporting factors indicating the rise and rapid growth of Thailand’s robotics sector, large-scale development of artificial intelligence (AI) for industrial robots, changing demography by shifting the country towards an aging society. Thailand Board of Investment forecasted that by 2030, 15% of Thai manufacturing workers will be replaced by robots.

Thailand Board of Investment also reported the rise of Thailand’s automation and robotics industries and their rapid impact on global productivity in the past decade. While Thailand becomes a significant player in industrial robots in ASEAN, the 3rd largest market in 2017.

A number of companies and institutes in Thailand have produced various kinds of robots and won several international awards, for example, Ohm; a receptionist robot with a cable of recording and projecting memories through a built-in VDO camera projector. Fhasai, robot-assisted therapy for children with autism spectrum disorders, was developed by Mahidol University. This robot was an award winner of the medical robotics idea test, Med Bot 2014, etc.

Along with the humanization of technology comes questions of gender representation, as well as gender characteristics depicted in robots. Gender stereotypes continue to exist and are transmitted through robot attributes and characters. One area deserving more attention in which concerning the lack of diversity and associated biases of all stakeholders that design the robot is the name of service robots promoting unfair gender stereotypes which various customer-facing service robots, such as automated waiters, receptionists, and the elderly /childcare providers, commonly feature female-gendered names, voices, or appearances.

Conceptual Framework

Artificial Intelligence (AI)

McCarthy (1959), a leading figure in computer science and AI pioneer, initialed Artificial Intelligence in his research “Programs with Common Sense” with the conception of an intelligent machine as an advice taker and reasoner. It was assumed that each aspect of learning and other domains of intelligence can be described precisely as machine stimulation of making intelligent machines.

Lackes & Sieperman (n.d.) defined “Artificial intelligence as the work processes of machines that would require intelligence if performed by humans. The term ‘artificial intelligence’ thus means ‘investigating intelligent problem-solving behavior and creating intelligent computer systems”.

Russell & Norvig (2009) defined AI as ‘an intelligent agent, where "Agent" means a software system which perceives its environment through sensors and acts upon that environment through actuators, and "Intelligence" means the ability to select an action that is expected to maximize a performance measure.

The European Commission (2019) defined AI as ‘Systems that display intelligent behavior by analyzing their environment and taking actions – with some degree of autonomy – to achieve specific goals’

Robot Definition

(International Federation of Robotics [IFR], 2022) classified robots into three types and defined each type as per the following definition:

Industrial Robot

  • Automatically controlled, reprogrammable multipurpose manipulator, programmable in three or more axes, which can be either fixed in place or fixed to a mobile platform for use in automation applications in an industrial environment

  • Industrial robots include the manipulating portion(s) of mobile robots, where a mobile robot consists of a mobile platform with an integrated manipulator or robot.

Service Robot

  • Robot in personal use or professional use that performs useful tasks for humans or equipment. (Tasks in personal use include handling or serving of items, transportation, physical support, providing guidance or information, grooming, cooking and food handling, and cleaning. Tasks in professional use include inspection, surveillance, handling of items, person transportation, providing guidance or information, cooking and food handling, and cleaning.)

Mobile Robot

  • Robot able to travel under its own control

  • A mobile robot can be a mobile platform with or without manipulators. In addition to autonomous operation, a mobile robot can have means to be remotely controlled.

According to (National Science and Technology Development Agency [NSTDA], 2017); Patarajarukul 2013), robot means all kinds of automation machine are designed to be able to perform tasks that human cannot do. It can perform complex and flexible capabilities and often repetitive tasks.

(The National Electronics and Computer Technology Center [NECTEC], 2008) defined a robot as mobile machinery or equipment with an autonomous program that can perform complex and flexible capabilities such as responding to information or signals from the environment, automating useful tasks for humans, or executing the process in the preset sequence of operations.

(Digital Economy Promotion Agency of Thailand [DEPA], 2019) defined the meaning of robot that refers to all kinds of automation machines that were designed to execute certain tasks for humans by performing complex and flexible capabilities and often repetitive tasks. It can be programable for a variety of works and installed artificial intelligence (AI) for the autonomous programs to execute an efficiently required task, while an automation system means a system or mechanism that is designed and programmed to work automatically. Types of robots according to the built-in core technology in robots can be classified into two types:

  • Industrial robot is used in production systems and be able to work automatically as programmed, such as a mechanical arm in a manufacturing plant.

  • Service robot is used for certain tasks in factories or warehouses, neither for automatic production nor industrial production, for example, educational robots, medical robots, and aerospace exploration robots. Service robots are designed for flexible mobility and work with humans efficiently.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Robotics

Gerlind et al. (2017) described “the use of AI can be categorized into five economic fields of artificial intelligence which is Deep learning, Robotisation, Dematerialisation, Gig economy, and Autonomous Driving.

  • Deep learning is about machine learning based on a set of algorithms that attempt to model high-level abstractions in data.

  • Robotisation is rapid growth as work more precisely and costs saving, for example, Creative studios have 3D printers and the self-learning ability of these production robots are more work efficiently.

  • Dematerialisation leads to the phenomenon that traditional physical products are becoming software, for example, CDs or DVDs was replaced by streaming services or the replacement of traditional event/travel tickets/ or hard cash to contactless payment by smartphone.

  • Gig economy A rise in self-employment is typical for the new generation of employees. The gig economy is usually understood to include chiefly two forms of work: ‘crowd working’ and ‘work on-demand via apps’ organized networking platforms. There are more and more independent contractors for individual tasks that companies advertise on online platforms (eg, ‘Amazon Mechanical Turk’).

  • Autonomous driving is vehicles with the power for self-governance using sensors and navigating without human input.”

IFR (2022) explained about AI is a human-designed software system or application to make robots execute an efficiently required task in variability and unpredictability in the external environment as can be seen from figure 1 (IFR, 2022)

Figure 1: Differentiation and overlap between Robotics and Artificial Intelligence (IFR, 2022)

Gender Bias

Rothchild (2014) defined gender bias as behavior showing favoritism towards one gender over another. Gender and sex distinction are explored as it means socially constructed expectations and roles for women and men, for girls and boys. Girls and women are specifically expected to prove feminine behavior, meanwhile, boys and men are expected to behave a masculine act. In terms of sexual context, biological differences are distinguished between females and males. The biological characteristics are reserved for females and males often consist of primary or secondary sex characteristics.

Gender Stereotype

Gender stereotypes are generalizations about what men and women are like, and there is typically distinguishing multifaceted dimensions of the agency and communality constructs for contemporary gender stereotypes characterizations of men and women (Hentschel et al., 2019). Hoyt et al. (2009) described men are believed to be assertive, independent, rational, and decisive, while women are believed to show concern for others, warmth, helpfulness, and nurturance. While those attributes are suggested by Abele (2003) that men’s attributes are referred to as agentic or masculine and women’s are communal or feminine.

Heilman (2012) examined the descriptive gender stereotypes which designated what women and men are like and prescriptive gender stereotypes which designated what women and men should be like and both types of gender stereotypes caused the rise of biased judgments and decisions, impeding women's advancement.

Research Methodology

The secondary data related to articles both in academic journals and non-academic literature are reviewed and analyzed. The purpose of this study is to explore the development and the state-of-the-art robotics and the development of the service robotics and artificial intelligence industries of Thailand and the probable influence of gender stereotypes are portrayed in.

Research Results

(Thailand’s Board of Investment [BOI], 2019) reported in Thailand’s automation and Robotics- The Rise of Automation & Robotics Industries that original robot designers are one of the supply chains that served as the key capabilities for service robots during the starting point of industrial and medical robotics development. The key players of original robot designers are, for example, A.I. Tech, CT Asia Robotics, ABB, Nachi, and Ureka Design.

Pongruengkiat (2020) suggested the service robot invention in Thailand in his article Evolution of Thai Robot Naming which generally explained Thailand’s service robotics invention in three eras: the initiative era, the digital disruption era, and the COVID-19 disruption era which can be chronologically illustrated in table 1.

Table 1. Service Robot Invention in Thailand in Chronological Order

Year

Robot Name

Gender

Inventor

Owner

Purpose

2009

CT

boy

CT Asia Robotics

CT Asia Robotics

Elderly care robots

2009

Dinsow

boy

CT Asia Robotics

CT Asia Robotics

Elderly care robots

2010

MK Robot

boy

CT Asia Robotics

MK Restaurant

Restaurant services

Table 1. (continued).

Year

Robot Name

Gender

Inventor

Owner

Purpose

2010

Ohm developed from “Namo”, its earlier-generation robot

girl

Institute of Field Robotics (FIBO) and School of Architecture and Design (SoA+D) of KMUTT

KMUTT

Receptionist robot

2011

Hajime Robot

non-gender specific

N/A

Hajime Robot Restaurant

serving food robot

2012

Yim Chaeng

boy

CT Asia Robotics

Muang Thai Life Assurance

Dinsow Robot as a mascot for a brand

2013

Dinsow II

boy

CT Asia Robotics

CT Asia Robotics

Elderly care robots

2014

Dinsow III

boy

CT Asia Robotics

CT Asia Robotics

Elderly care robots

2014

Chang Phood

boy

Biomedical Engineering of Mahidol University

Mahidol University

Therapeutic robot for autistic children (assist speech training purpose)

2014

Chang Kui

girl

Biomedical Engineering of Mahidol University

Mahidol University

Therapeutic robot for autistic children (assist speech recognition performance)

2014

Chang Tam

boy

Biomedical Engineering of Mahidol University

Mahidol University

Therapeutic robot for autistic children (assist human social interaction skill)

2014

Fhasai

girl

Biomedical Engineering of Mahidol University

Mahidol University

Therapeutic robot for autistic children (the above three-robot function combined.)

Table 1. (continued).

Year

Robot Name

Gender

Inventor

Owner

Purpose

2016

Dinsow mini

boy

CT Asia Robotics

CT Asia Robotics

elderly care robots

2017

Sandee Delivery Bot

non-gender specific

Sansiri Public Company Limited, Mitsubishi Motors (Thailand) Co., Ltd., and Indian-owned startup in Singapore

Sansiri Public Company Limited

Residential delivery services

2017

Sevy Bot

named “Maeng Mum”

non-gender specific

CP All Public Company Limited

and Faculty of Robotics and Automation Engineering of

Panyapiwat Institute of Management (PIM) 

CP All Public Company Limited

Receptionist robot in first flagship 7-11 a convenience store at Satit Panyapiwat School Branch

2018

Sevy Bot

named “Sin Samut”

non-gender specific

CP All Public Company Limited

and Faculty of Robotics and Automation Engineering of

Panyapiwat Institute of Management (PIM) 

Receptionist robot in the second flagship 7-11 a convenience store atTara Pattaya Branch (Ocean Marina Yacht Club), South Pattaya

2018

Choo Jai

girl

Faculty of Engineering, Mahidol University

Mahidol University

Mental health care for the elderly

2019

Dinsow IV

boy

CT Asia Robotics

CT Asia Robotics

elderly care robots

2019

Alex

male

AIS Robotics Lab

Advanced Info Service Public Company Limited

Welcome and customer services  

2019

Lisa

female

AIS Robotics Lab

Advanced Info Service Public Company Limited

Welcome and customer service  

Table 1. (continued).

Year

Robot Name

Gender

Inventor

Owner

Purpose

2020

DoctoSight 1

non-gender specific

Faculty of Engineering, Mahidol University

Mahidol University

Telemedicine service during the COVID-19 situation

2020

DoctoSight 2

non-gender specific

Faculty of Engineering, Mahidol University

Mahidol University

Delivery Service during the Covid-19 outbreak

2020

FIBO Against Covid-19: FACA or Mod Boriraksa

non-gender specific

Forms Syntron (Thailand) Co., Ltd. , Cisco Systems(Thailand) Limited, Advanced Information Technology Public Company Limited, and The Institute of FIeld roBOtics (FIBO) of KMUTT

Chulalongkorn University

Service robots serve as communication tools and facilitate food and medicine delivery in public hospitals during the Covid-19 outbreak

2020

Krajok (mirror)

non-gender specific

Chulalongkorn University Alumni and Chulalongkorn University's Faculty of Engineering

Chulalongkorn University

Food and medicine delivery with telepresence system robot during the Covid-19 outbreak

2020

Pinto

CU-RoboCovid Series

non-gender specific

Chulalongkorn University Alumni and Chulalongkorn University's Faculty of Engineering

Chulalongkorn University

Food and medicine delivery services and serve as a communication tool between physicians and patients during the Covid-19 outbreak

Table 1. (continued).

Year

Robot Name

Gender

Inventor

Owner

Purpose

2020

Ninja

CU-RoboCovid Series

non-gender specific

Chulalongkorn University Alumni and Chulalongkorn University's Faculty of Engineering

Chulalongkorn University

Telemedicine robot

2020

Tham-Robot

non-gender specific

Faculty of Engineering, Thammasat University.

Thammasat University.

Automatic trolley for medical support in Field hospital during the Covid-19 outbreak

2020

CMU Aiyara robot

non-gender specific

Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital, Faculty of Dentistry, Faculty of Engineering of Chiang Mai University

Chiang Mai University

Automatic shelf for delivery service in the nursing ward during the Covid-19 outbreak

2020

Sunburst UV Bots

non-gender specific

Frasers Property (Thailand) Public Company Limited and PBA Robotics (Thailand)

Frasers Property (Thailand) PCL

UV-disinfecting autonomous mobile robots

2020

Robot for Care (ROC)

K9 Robot,

PP Robot

non-gender specific

AIS Robotics Lab

Advanced Info Service PCL

temperatures checks robot, a scurrying robot dog dispenses hand sanitizer, a welcoming robot

2020

Anonymous

non-gender specific

N/A

Penguin Eat Shabu Restaurant

Serving robots in the restaurant

2020

Black Canyon Robot

non-gender specific

Sun Robotics & AI

Black Canyon

serving robot in restaurant

2020

Cheese

Spicy

Caesar

non-gender specific

Pudu Robotics Thailand

Sizzler Thai

Service robots in Sizzler restaurant

Table 1. (continued).

Year

Robot Name

Gender

Inventor

Owner

Purpose

2020

Robosta Café

non-gender specific

Brainworks Co., Ltd.

Brainworks Co., Ltd.

robotic coffee maker

2021

Ketty Bot

non-gender specific

Pudu Robotics Thailand

Suki Teenoi Shabu Buffet

food server in a restaurant

2021

Niya

girl

N/A

Nittaya Kai Yang Restaurant

food server robot

2021

Anonymous

non-gender specific

N/A

Aka Restaurant

taking order and serving food robot

2021

Anonymous

non-gender specific

N/A

Praram 9 Kaiyang Restaurant

serving and delivering robot in restaurant

2021

Anonymous

non-gender specific

N/A

Hajime Robot Restaurant

serving food robot

2021

Anonymous

non-gender specific

Pudu Robotics Thailand

You & I Premium Suki Buffet

service robot in restaurant serves as customer interaction, food and beverage serving robot

2021

Temjai 

non-gender specific

Sun Robotics & AI

Central Food Retail Co., Ltd.

service robot helping customers to find the products in Tops Market and Central Food Hall stores

2021

Pui Fai

(True 5G Robot Barista) and

True 5G Serving Bot Agent

non-gender specific

Orion Star Technology Co., Ltd.

True Coffee

Robotic barista and smart roster in TrueCoffee Flagship Store at Center Point of Siam Square

Table 1. (continued).

Year

Robot Name

Gender

Inventor

Owner

Purpose

Q1 2022

MK01 called “Sook Jai”,

MK02 called “Pakkard”

Setto for Yayoi Restaurant

non-gender specific

Pudu Robotics Thailand

MK Restaurant Group PCL

Service Robot in MK restaurant and Yayoi restaurant with the function of Food & Ads Promotion Delivery, Butler Service, Dish Collection Service

Source: Researcher’s Analysis (2022)

The Initiative Era: 2009 -2013

Dinsow robot series, the first service robot in Thailand and Southeast Asia originally developed by CT Asia Robotics in 2009, was internationally well-known for elderly care services, especially in Japan and Sweden markets (BOI, 2019; Pongruengkiat, 2020). Dinsow is a humanoid robot designed for the elderly care service with a cheerful character of a Thai 10-year-old boy who lives in Bangkok, loves high technology, owns the ability of robotic development, and science teaching. Dinsow robots were also developed to be primarily used in Thailand’s restaurant chain, MK Restaurant Group Public Company Limited. In 2010, ten MK robots were initially launched to serve food, welcome customers, and sing a happy birthday song on customers’ birthdays.

In 2010, Ohm, a receptionist robot developed from an earlier-generation robot called “Namo” was invented by FIBO and SoA+D of King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi (BOI, 2019; Pongruengkiat, 2020). Ohm is a humanoid designated as a girl robotic receptionist with its capability of recording and projecting memories through a built-in video camera and projector.

In 2011, Hajime Robot Restaurant used Hajime Robot, Hajime (means “first time” or “beginning”) has taken dining out to a new level, mixing modern innovations from the automotive industry with authentic Japanese food to create a sense of futuristic restaurant experience. The service robot is designed to express emotion, interact, and dance, all while serving food. It was claimed that it is the very first robot restaurant in Thailand.

In 2012, Yim Chaeng was developed from Dinsow series for Muang Thai Insurance Public Company Limited as a corporate mascot. Yim Chaeng means a beaming smile in Thai which is associated with the Muang Thai Insurance Company campaign. Mr. Chalermpol Punnotok, CEO of CT Asia Robotic revealed what the name Dinsow came from in 2015’s TED x Chulalongkorn U event that he imagined that robots in human life must be used handily so that we dare to use the robot in daily life.

Pongruengkiat (2020) explained that CT robot was named after its mother company CT Asia Robotics. Once the service provider bought the robot, they named their robot themselves, for example, MK Robot was named after MK restaurants group, and Yim Chang was named after the marketing campaign of Muang Thai Life Assurance.

Gender Stereotypes in the Initiative Era

The gender stereotyping portrayal has been demonstrated during the initiative era. It is vital to evaluate how the development team depicts and reinforces existing gender-role stereotyping humanization of robots by naming and appearance, as a result, Ohm robot, was humanized as a girl robotic receptionist. Eagly and Carli (2007) suggested girls or women are associated with the attributes of sympathetic treatment to others which includes being affectionate, helpful, friendly, kind and sympathetic, interpersonally sensitive, gentle, and soft-spoken. Chin and Robinson (2020) also explained that many customer-facing service robots, for instance, automated hotel staff, robotic waiters, robotic bartenders, security guards, and robotic childcare providers in the global industry, have traditionally featured females.

Similarly, Dinsow robot, means pencil in Thai, using the word itself in Thai culture indicates a neutral name that represents a non-specification of masculinity and femininity. With the gender humanization of the service robot, intelligence and skill in science and technology are assigned characters for a 10-year-old boy robot that can reflect gender bias and stereotypes, why not girls?

Evidence is clearly indicated that the first service robot from Thailand, as claimed in BOI Investment Promotion 2016, failed to pay in a favor of the girl character. It implies that the service robotics and artificial intelligence industry in Thailand is a male-dominated and prioritized society at the same facing problem as the global level.

The finding on unequal female gender identity from stereotypical attitudes in Thailand’s artificial intelligence and robotics technology during the initial stage is an undeniable truth that the commercially practical use for the private sector was foresighted and predominantly driven by all-male CEOs at that time, Mr. Chalermpol Punnotok, CEO of CT Asia Robotic, Mr. Rit Thirakomen. Chairman of the Board of Directors MK Restaurant Group Public Company Limited and Mr. Chulin Lamsam, CEO of Muang Thai Life Assurance Public Company Limited.

The Digital Disruption: 2014-2019

Pongruengkiat (2020) explained that Thailand has been just alerted about business innovation influenced by global start-up culture during the year 2016, the robot technology increasingly developed and integrated into the business model. Deloitte (2020) explained that “Digital disruption has grown to become a major force across a broad number of industries worldwide. Digital disruption is a change that occurs when new digital technologies and business models affect the value proposition of existing goods and services.”

Accordance with (International Institute for Management Development [IMD], 2019 & 2021) revealed the series of biennial studies of the Digital Vortex exploring the impact of the age of digital disruption that the top 5 from 14 industries highly impacted by digital disruption are Media & Entertainment, Technology Products & Services, Telecommunications, Retail, and Financial Services, whereas other industries had faced more significant pressure or transformative extent.

In 2014, Chang Phood, Chang Kui, Chang Tam and Fhasai humanoid robot series, robot-assisted therapy for children with autism spectrum disorders, were developed by the Faculty of Biomedical Engineering of Mahidol University (BOI, 2019; Pongruengkiat, 2020). Fhasai robot was the winner of the medical robotics idea in i,MedBot 2014 contest organized by Thailand Center of Excellence for Life Sciences (TCELS). The use of these four robots as the role of toys, playmates, or teachers for autistic children, was to enhance three main social impairments: social interaction, social communication, and imagination. Chang Phood and Chang Kui are developed for assisting speech training purposes which can respond to correct and incorrect pronunciation to motivate the children to practice as much as possible. Chang Kui has a tablet for displaying human mouth movements so that autistic children can improve speech recognition performance. Change Tam can help to improve human social interaction skill, autistic children can engage by imitating basic human gestures, such as raising the left or right hand, etc.

Chang Phood and Chang Tam were designated as boy characters, while Chang Kui was defined as a girl character. Pongruengkiat (2020) explained that robotic-assisted therapy for autistic children was named under the medical aspect. Each robot was designed to look like a cartoon character wearing human clothing. In 2016, CT Asia Robotics launched Dinsow Mini robot as an elderly care robot but portable size.

In 2017, SAN:DEE Delivery Bot, delivery robots developed by a collaboration of private sectors; Siri Ventures Co., Ltd. (Prop Tech of Sansiri Public Company Limited), Mitsubishi Motors (Thailand), and an Indian-owned startup in Singapore. Two robots called SAN:DEE Delivery Bot, designed as non-specific gender delivery robots, were developed for Sansiri’s two condominium projects at The Line Sathorn and The Monument Sanampao. Their capabilities included three delivered compartments for 80kg. maximum payloads and three-room delivery per round. The robot’s duties are being a messenger delivering parcels to residents’ doors and contacting recipients via the registered phone number for notifying the parcel delivery status via the Sansiri Home application and a patroller around the building by going up and down the elevator by themselves via Wi-Fi connection.

In the same year, CP All Public Company Limited and the Faculty of Robotics and Automation Engineering of Panyapiwat Institute of Management (PIM) developed the Sevy-Bot, a receptionist and in-store information provider robot for 4.0 customer lifestyle in the digital era. The first Sevy-Bot called “Maeng Mum” (means spider in Thai) was in the first flagship 7-Eleven convenience store at Satit Panyapiwat School Branch, Chaengwattana Road, Nonthaburi, and the second robot, also known as ‘‘Sin Samut’’ (name of one of character in Thai folklore epic poem) was launched in the second flagship 7-Eleven convenience store, Tara Pattaya Branch (Ocean Marina Yacht Club), South Pattaya in 2018 respectively.

Meanwhile, Choojai robot is a mental health assistive robot for the elderly in the elderly care center launched. The robot size is 60 cm x 30 cm, a weight of 15 kg, and a display screen size of 10.5 inches. Pongruengkiat (2020) described the original design of Choojai robot that was physically designed as the female gender robot wearing a round-necked sleeveless collar shirt in Thai traditional style.

Choojai robot is a prototype model of the research and development project that combines the knowledge of Artificial Intelligence (AI) with the principles of clinical psychology in the elderly, designed and developed by the Faculty of Engineering Mahidol University in collaboration with the Department of Clinical Psychology Department of Psychiatry Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital. It is an integration of artificial intelligence, robotics, clinical psychology, and music therapy. Choojai’s functions are included smart hospital application, telemedicine memory-emotion, cognitive function screening, and psychological intervention application.

After the elderly has a conversation session with a Choojai robot, the robot will evaluate an emotional state assessment and assist in the arrangement of personalized psychological intervention programs to suit an individual's emotional state and needs at the appropriate level. Choojai robot will avoid any activities that may result in negative emotions for the elderly. In addition, Choojai robot can also assess the mental status and memory condition and organize a program to help train the elderly’s memory. The results of using Choojai robot on the mental health level of a geriatric in an elderly care center showed a reduction trend of somatization, depression, and anxiety scores and beneficial use for mental health care in the elderly (Wongpatikaseree et al., 2021).

In 2019, Alex robot and Lisa robot were designed and developed by Advanced Info Service Public Company Limited and deployed two robots in two AIS DigiALL Shops to welcome and serve customers, Alex in the Bangkok branch and Lisa to provide customer service in the Central Floresta Department Store in Phuket. The business aim is to capitalize on digital lifestyles. Lisa robot is an AI-driven robot providing customers with general information and guiding them to the product and service counter upon customers’ desires. Customers can make orders and purchase some merchandising products via Lisa robot touchscreen. Pongruengkiat (2020) described Alex robot design as likely to imitate a human physical look with a head that is separated from the body, whereas Lisa robot was designed as a mobile kiosk and this is quite clear that Lisa is feminine by name, while Alex sounds more masculine. In the same year, Thailand’s robotic innovator CT Asia Robotics still developed and launched Dinsow IV robot with a full arm function for elderly health care.

Gender Stereotypes in the Digital Disruption Era

The second era of Thailand’s service robotics and artificial intelligence industries was still mainly spotted in the medical and elderly services. Retails and property technology sector was a new player. It was evident that the medical industry humanized the robot by the influential gender stereotype through how they added a human name and define it. Josie Young, an awarded young leader in IT awards in London 2020, described in TED x London Women 2018 that adding the human name, face, voice, and appearance to technology reflects the bias in the viewpoints of the developer team that builds it.

Heilman et al., (2019) described men are perceived generally as being more assertive than women, while women are viewed in general as more concerned about others, sociable, and emotionally sensitive. Robots for medical service were humanized by a gender-related role, especially, robots in care assistance characterized as a girl are shown a part of gender stenotype, woman or girl born for being warm, helpful, and nurturing (Hoyt et al., 2009). Godsil et al., (2016) noted that gender roles were rooted in a historical division of labor and breed gender stereotypes that continue to constrict opportunities in the presence of women’s work that always engaged in occupations, such as teaching or nursing, that emphasize communal characteristics (Cejka & Eagly, 1999; England, Budig, & Folbre, 2002).

Service robot in Thailand in this era demonstrates how gender stereotype portrays through the gender humanization in those nursing care robots; Chang Phood robot (means talkative and ability to talk for a great deal in Thai) and Chang Tam robot (means inventive in Thai) were depicted as boy characters, whereas Chang Kui robot (means chatty in Thai) was characterized as a female. Fhasai robot (means bright sky in Thai), integrated attributes of three robots (Chang Phood, Chang Tam, and Chang Kui) for helping autistic children. Choojai robot, (which means encourage or enhance one’s spirit in Thai), is commonly used as a name for girls.

This can raise the question of the suppression of women's representation that is pervasive in AI and robotics industries. Thailand is a traditional gender roles society, women are expected to be primary caregivers of children and of the elderly, and girls are expected to look pretty, chatty, and feminine. In Thailand, fewer female leaders are in the military or important political institutions, all male at the upper echelons. The same issues that global women are facing.

The Covid-19 Disruption: 2020 – Q1 2022

The Covid-19 pandemic has sped up the adoption of AI and robotics technology. In 2020, there are many robots were designed and developed by academic institutes to support the medical service during the COVID-19 outbreak. DoctoSight 1, a telemedicine robot, was developed by the Faculty of Engineering, Mahidol University in 2020. This telemedicine robot can help doctors and patients not to have direct contact. This can reduce the risk of COVID-19 infection. The special attribute is an automatic move to a different location, and it can work together with more than one robot. The robot can approach the patient by receiving commands via the touch screen or be controlled through the application. The navigation system and the built-in map in the robot help them move from one location to another location. In hospitals, the robot can deliver medicines and measure various vital signs, for example, patients’ temperatures. DoctoSight 1 robot was designed to have a small compartment to store medicines and medicals supplies, while DoctoSight 2 robot was served as a medical deliverer.

FIBO Against Covid-19: FACO or Mod Boriraksa was developed by the collaboration of the private sector and educational institutes; Forms Syntron (Thailand) Co., Ltd., Cisco Systems (Thailand) Limited, Advanced Information Technology Public Company Limited, and The Institute of Field Robotics (FIBO) of King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi.

Mod Boriraksa (Caregiver Ants) is a service medical robot series, designed to perform vital functions such as telemedicine and clinician-patient communication in the Chonburi, Phutthasothorn, Rayong and Bang La Mung hospitals in Thailand's infrastructure industry Eastern Economic Corridor (EEC) areas which aimed to reduce the risk of infection with COVID-19 during the Covid-19 outbreak for frontline healthcare professionals. FIBO Against Covid-19: FACO or Mod Borirak has three prototypes as follows: 1. Sofa robot, a service robot for telemedicine, provides remote patient diagnosis, checks the general physical condition of patients; eyes and tongues – from a distance via a video conferencing system in real-time. The treatment record or diagnosis results displayed on the monitor screen are connected through the hospital system, the physicians can remotely command Sofa robot from the centralized control center to relocate to the designated areas.

2. Carver robot is an autonomous mobile robot designed to perform several tasks, for example, delivering food, medications, and medical supplies for inpatients. Carver robot can deliver up to twenty food trays each time. Controlled through a hydroxyl generator, the robot is equipped with air purifying and viral disinfectant functions to sanitize the hospital around the clock.

3. Service robot can deliver medicine and food to patients with special needs at specific locations. It has been designed to autonomously relocate to the designated areas by remotely controlling from a centralized center. The patients can interact with the robot to communicate with doctors and nurses.

Chulalongkorn University Alumni and Chulalongkorn University's Faculty of Engineering developed the CU-RoboCovid Series called, Krajok (mirror), Pinto (food carrier), and Ninja. Ninja robots, a medical assistant robot serve as a communication mechanism between doctors and patients including monitoring blood pressure, temperature, and heart pulse. To help reduce the risk of infection, doctors can speak with coronavirus patients through Ninja robots’ video chat. With telepresence systems, Pinto robots deliver meals to patients, and Krajok (mirror) robots, integrated with a tablet allowing patients to seek assistance from doctors and frontlines staff, are invented to reduce the risk of transmission from patients to healthcare workers and establish a network of communication between doctors and patients during treatment.

Tham-Bot, an autonomous trolley robot for medical support in a field hospital during the Covid-19 outbreak, was developed by the Faculty of Engineering, Thammasat University. Tham-bot was named after the university name.

CMU Aiyara robot, an autonomous shelf robot for delivery service in the nursing ward during the Covid-19 outbreak, was developed by Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital, Faculty of Dentistry and Faculty of Engineering of Chiang Mai University

For private sector’s new normal, autonomous robot has been introduced to use in some properties and retail shop. Sunburst UV Bots by Frasers Property (Thailand) Public Company Limited together with PBA Robotics (Thailand) developed UV-disinfecting autonomous mobile robots (AMRs). The robot has been introduced to use at their residence at the Grand Rama 2 in Bangplee area, Samyan Mitrtown and Mitrtown Office.

Robot for Care (ROC), K9 Robot, PP Robot were launched by AIS Robotics Lab and Advanced Info Service Public Company Limited. ROC robot is designed for temperature checks robot, K9 is a scurrying robot dog dispenses hand sanitizer, and PP Robot is a welcoming robot.

Couple of years after the Covid-19 pandemic, food and beverage restaurants have had a huge impact and must adapt themselves to a new normal and social distancing. Not only facing a labor shortage problem due to employees have returned to their hometowns and not returning to work after the back of opening for service, but many shops and restaurants must be also temporarily closed to sit and dine in according to the governmental lockdown measures during the epidemic situation of COVID-19.

The entrepreneurs must adapt to the use of robotic technology as part of a business model. Robots have initially been used in some major restaurants and starting to play an increasingly important role. Especially, the manufacturing sector has been used for a long time, but the service sector uses it as a vibrant gimmick for marketing purposes.

When the lockdown measures were eased, restaurants can reopen as usual. The serving robot is more beneficial to restaurants because it will reduce the risk for both customers and employees and build confidence for customers’ dine-in experience. A paint point is customers anxious to come in and contact with the staff, service robots were chosen to fix this challenge.

In 2020, Spicy, Caesar and Cheese robots were introduced by Sizzler Thailand. These three robots help serve food because of social distancing which minimizes contamination and established sanitary safety standards. These robots act like a person in the store by taking customers to the table, serving multiple food orders at the same time as well as clearing the plates from the customer table, and delivering to the kitchen. Similarly, Penguin Eat Shabu Restaurant also used a service robot for serving food in the restaurant.

Black Canyon Coffee Shop, a family-owned food and beverage company, used Black Canyon Robot, a serving robot at Central Plaza Grand Rama 9 branch. The robot was developed after the outbreak of COVID-19 to help prevent direct contact between each other and to keep distance in the new normal era. The robot with a built-in sensor system and a collision-avoidance system to prevent the collision that may be occurring can walk to the customer's table to serve food and drinks. In the same year, Brainworks Co., Ltd. invented Robosta Café robot, a coffee-making arm bot, which is an automation coffee maker for customer 4.0 era.

In 2021, there were more restaurants using robot in their business, for example, Suki Teenoi Shabu Buffet used Ketty Bot, Nittaya Kai Yang Restaurant used Niya Robot. Aka Restaurants introduced service robots in their branches. The robot can receive orders via touch screen and serve food instead of staff. Michelin-starred 2020 & 2021 Bib Gourmont, Praram 9 Kaiyang restaurant spent ten million baht for pilot use of a service robot to serve food in the restaurant. You & I Premium Suki Buffet launched a service robot with its duty of customer interaction, food, and beverage service in a dine-in restaurant. Bringing robots into the service sector makes a difference and creates new experiences for customers dining in restaurants.

Temjai (means willing in Thai), a service robot helping customers to find the products, was used by Central Food Retail Co,. Ltd. in Tops Market and Central Food Hall stores in 2021.

True Coffee introduced Pui Fai robot (means Cotton Wool in Thai) and True 5G Serving Bot Agent provided the service in True Coffee Flagship Store at Center Point of Siam Square. Pui Fai robot is a barista robot with and smart roster. True 5G Serving Bot Agent, a serving robot with a 3-tray compartment, and installed with an ultrasonic sensor for collision avoidance which helps the robot avoid bumping into objects, serve customers drinks and dishes without human physical contact and reducing the risk of disease transmission.

In mid of 2021, True Coffee launched the 7-day campaign vote for the name of their robot True 5G Robot Barista, the five shortlisted names are Pui Fai (Cotton Wool), Drippy, Khao Naun (off-white) , Orb Aom ( kindhearted), and Humble Brew. Finally, Pui Fai won the top vote and was assigned to the new name of True 5G Robot Barista.

In Q1 2022, MK Group launched their new robot model; MK01 called Sook Jai (means Happy in Thai), and MK02 called Pakkard (means Cabbage in Thai) and Setto for Yayoi Japanese restaurant. The three robots were used in MK restaurant and Yayoi restaurant as food & ads promotor, food and beverage server, service butler, and dish collector.

Gender Stereotype in The Covid-19 Disruption: 2020 – Q1 2022

In this period, the spread of COVID-19 is a huge impact, the robots were rapidly invented and developed to earlier serve hospitals and medical care, then influence on retail and restaurant sector. Earlier stages of COVID-19 disruption, non-humanization by name, and non-gender specific appearance were found in service robots. Most of the robots were named by either a function-oriented viewpoint, (Pinto robot, for example, as in Thai means food carrier, so it is a food delivering robot, Sunburst UV Bots, a UV disinfecting autonomous mobile robot, etc.) or Institute Brand Awareness (CU-RoboCovid Series by Chulalongkorn University, FIBO against COVID-19 by The Institute of Filed Robotics, Tham-Robot by Thammasat University, etc.) It seems that a service robot is just an object designed and developed to facilitate human life and solve human problems.

In retail and restaurant sectors, non-gender specification by appearance for the commercially used robot is indicated, but a gender-specific naming by a sense of human pleasurer to serve customer expectation and satisfaction was shown, for example, Tem Jai robot (means willing in Thai) by Central Food Retail, Suk Jai robot (means happy in Thai) by MK Group. Those names have commonly sensed a name for females in Thai society which is in line with Heilman et al., (2019) noted that women are viewed in general as more concerned about others, sociable, and emotionally sensitive as well as Hoyt et al., (2009) pointed out that woman or girl born for being warm, helpful, and nurturing.

Interestingly, the finding demonstrates how gender stereotype has an influence on gender-humanization in naming the robot as we can learn from a real-Thai decision showing the result of the public vote for True Coffee’s Pui Fai robot. It shows the power of society’s gender roles in breeding gender stereotypes (Godsil et al., 2005) in Thai beliefs. The word Pui Fai (cotton wool representing a female-related name in Thai) is represented a sense of warmth and friendly which is matchable with the appearance of the cuddly chubby white robot. In accordance with Gorman (2005) revealed that stereotypically masculine traits show ambitious, assertive, and independent whereas female criteria traits included cooperative, friendly, and verbally oriented.

In general, the finding shows that gender-humanization avoidance by allowing the public to make a real decision, naming the robot as a generic animal name Ketty Bot, K9, or calling the robot a company or retail shop were generally demonstrated. This era finds more commercial use for marketing aspects in the retail business, especially in food chain restaurants, hospitals, and the property sector.

Conclusions

Findings showed the extent that which gender stereotypes in service robotics and artificial intelligence industries were mostly demonstrated in the first era and the digital disruption era. The first receptionist robot was designated as a girl. Similarly, the first Thai design service robot was strongly evident in the male-dominated society leading to the result of the masculine attribute to the Dinsow robot, boy robot gender humanization. Gender specification role is also found in robot humanization in the second era, especially in medical care, the elderly service care, retails, and the property technology sector. Most characteristics of nursing and teaching are assigned through girl robots attribute by naming and appearance.

In the latest era of COVID-19 disruption, most of the robots were invented by the educational institute to support hospitals and frontline workers. Fewer gender stereotypes were found in robot naming humanization by the developer team. For retails and food chain sector, human pleasurer naming for customer satisfaction was humanized by a female-related name for the robot. Gender-humanization avoidance was performed by the owned company by using the public vote, however, the result from the real public decision making shows a strong gender stereotype affects how Thai perceive men and women’s abilities and how they implicate in naming the robotic barista, Pui Fai robot.

The service robot trend is significantly increasing as COVID-19 disruption, the manufacturing sector is extending businesses to the service sector, and consumers are changing their behaviors by adapting themselves to be familiar with using AI technology and robotics. In addition, Thailand is equipped with the required human capital and skills from many educational institutes as reflected by projects and awards won by Thai students in various global-level robotics competitions.

The positive sign of less often gender stereotypes on service robot humanization was shown in recent years, but the true problem of Thailand’s service robotics and artificial intelligence industries is about a male dominant society with the judgment of women’s math, logic, and mechanism skills, therefore, it becomes a lack of gender diversity culture in developers in the robotics and artificial intelligence industries as found in the global level problem.

References

Aditya, A. (n.d.). Artificial intelligence and robotics scenario in Thailand and ASEAN. Startup in Thailand. https://startupinthailand.com/artificial-intelligence-and-robotics-scenario-in-thailand-and-asean/

AIT News Desk. (2019, May 22). Thailand promotes AI, robotics technology to spur industry 4.0 readiness. AI Thority. https://aithority.com/robots/thailand-promotes-ai-robotics-technology-to-spur-industry-4-0-readiness/

Brady, M. (1984). Artificial intelligence and robotics. Robotics and Artificial Intelligence. NATO ASI Series, 11. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-82153-0_2

Cejka, M. A., & Eagly, A. H. (1999). Gender-Stereotypic Images of Occupations Correspond to the Sex Segregation of Employment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25(4), 413–423. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167299025004002

Chin, C. & Robison, M. (2020, November 23). How AI bots and voice assistants reinforce gender bias. Brookings and the Italian Institute for International Political Studies (ISPI). https://www.brookings.edu/research/how-ai-bots-and-voice-assistants-reinforce-gender-bias/

DEPA-Digital Economy Promotion Agency of Thailand (n.d.) Tech Series: Robotics and Automation System. https://www.depa.or.th/en/article-view/tech-series-robotics-and-automation-system

Destination Thailand News. (2021, November 23). First in Thailand’s supermarkets, central food retail utilizes ai technology to facilitate shopping, introducing Temjai, an AI service robot, to offer convenience to consumers in the new normal. Destination Thailand News. https://destinationthailandnews.com/lifestyle-news/shopping/first-in-thailands-supermarkets-central-food-retail-utilizes-ai-technology-to-facilitate-shopping-introducing-temjai-an-ai-service-robot-to-offer-convenience-to-consumers-in-the-new-nor.html

Eagly, A. H., Carli, L. L. (2007). Women and the labyrinth of leadership. Harvard Business Review, 85(9)63–71. https://hbr.org/2007/09/women-and-the-labyrinth-of-leadership

England, P., Budig, M., & Folbre, N. (2002). Wages of virtue: The relative pay of care work. Social Problems, 49(4), 455–473. https://scholarworks.umass.edu/econ_faculty_pubs/96

European Commission. (2019, April). A definition of Artificial Intelligence: main capabilities and scientific disciplines. https://digital-strategy.ec.europa.eu/en/library/definition-artificial-intelligence-main-capabilities-and-scientific-disciplines

Elliott, S. (2018, n.d.). Artificial intelligence, robots, and work: is this time different?. Issues In Science and Technology. https://issues.org/artificial-intelligence-robots-and-work-is-this-time-different/

Godsil, R. D., Tropp, L.R., Goff, P.A., Powell, J.A., & MacFarlane, J. (2016). The Effects of Gender Roles, Implicit Bias, and Stereotype Threat on The Lives of Women and Girls. The Science of Equality, Volume 2. Perception Institute. https://equity.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Science-of-Equality-Volume-2.pdf

Gorman, E. H. (2005). Gender Stereotypes, Same-Gender Preferences, and Organizational Variation in the Hiring of Women: Evidence from Law Firms. American Sociological Review, 70(4), 702–728. https://doi.org/10.1177/000312240507000408

Harris, T. & Pollette, C. (2022, January 10). How robots work. How Stuff Works. https://science.howstuffworks.com/robot6.htm

Heilman, M. (2012). Gender stereotypes and workplace bias. Organizational Behavior 32,113–135. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0191308512000093

Hentschel, T., Heilman, M.E., & Peus, C.V. (2019). The Multiple Dimensions of Gender Stereotypes: A Current Look at Men’s and Women’s Characterizations of Others and Themselves. Frontiers in Psychology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00011

Hoyt, A. L., Rhodes, R. E., Hausenblas, H. A., & Giacobbi, P. R. (2009). Integrating five-factor model facet-level traits with the theory of planned behavior and exercise. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10(5), 565–572. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2009.02.008

International Federation of Robotics Frankfurt, Germany. (2022, February). Artificial intelligence in robotics. https://ifr.org/papers

King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi (KMUTT), ( 2020, April 10). The outbreak at the hospitals: “FACO robots” (FIBO FACO robots (FIBO against covid-19) ready to assist frontline healthcare personnel to combat the outbreak at the hospital. Kmutt. https://global.kmutt.ac.th/2020/04/10/15646

Lackes, R. & Siepermann, M. (n.d.). Artificial Intelligence. Wirtschaftslexikon.gabler.de. https://wirtschaftslexikon.gabler.de/definition/kuenstliche-intelligenz-ki-40285/version-263673

McCarthy, J. (1959) Programs with common sense, in: Proceedings of the Teddington Conference on the Mechanization of Thought Processes, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 75–91. http://jmc.stanford.edu/articles/mcc59.html

Martin, A. (2021, November 26). Robotics and artificial intelligence: the role of AI in robots. AI Business. https://aibusiness.com/author.asp?section_id=789&doc_id=773741

Patarajarukul, B. (2013). Industrial Robot, Se-Education

Policy Research: PRS (n.d.). Robot industry in Thailand by NSATDA. Nsatda. https://waa.inter.nstda.or.th/prs/pub/Robot-Whitepaper-Cover.pdf

Pongruengkiat, W. (2020, May18). วิวัฒนาการการตั้งชื่อหุ่นยนต์ไทย (Evolution of thai robot naming). Medium. https://medium.com/@p.weeratouch/วิวัฒนาการการตั้งชื่อหุ่นยนต์ไทย-2f47900e0e85.

Rothchild, J. (2014). Gender Bias. The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781405165518.wbeosg011.pub2

Russell, S. & Norvig, P. (2009) Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach. (3rd ed.). Pearson Education.

Sakovich, N. (2019, August 20). How artificial intelligence and robotics are changing our lives. Sam Solutions. https://www.sam-solutions.com/blog/ai-and-robotics-impact-on-our-lives/

SCB Economic Intelligence Center (2016, September 15). Robotics new challenges to watch out for in Thailand. https://www.scbeic.com/en/detail/file/product/2709/eigk3bzyr2/Note_EN_Robotics_15092016.pdf

Wade, M. (2021). Digital vortex 2021: digital disruption in a COVID world. IMD-International Institute for Management Development Report. https://www.imd.org/contentassets/8c5b42807da941ee95c7be87d54e5db9/20210427-digitalvortex21-report-web-final.pdf

Wilson, H. & Daugherty, P. (2018). Collaborative intelligence: humans and ai are joining forces. Harvard Business Review, 114-123. https://hbr.org/2018/07/collaborative-intelligence-humans-and-ai-are-joining-forces

Wongpatikaseree, K., Yomaboot P., Noohom. N. , Yuenyong, S., Pakdeesatitwara, N., Taewijit, S., & Boonthavi, S. (2021). A study of effects of using Choojai artificial intelligence robot for elderlies on stress level of geriatric in elderly care center : a pilot study. NBTC Journal. 5(5) (Nov. 2021), 379–398. https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/NBTC_Journal/article/view/248270/172971

Thailand Board of Investment. (2019). Thailand’s automation & robotics: the rise of automation and robotics industries. BOI. https://www.boi.go.th/upload/content/automation_5a4fa9cec04d6.pdf

The National Electronics and Computer Technology Center (NECTEC). (2008), Technology Roadmap for Thai Robotics and Automation Technology 2008-2012. NECTEC

Yokoi, T., Shan, J., Wade, M., & Macaulay, J. (2019). Digital vortex 2019: continuous and connected change. IMD-International Institute for Management Development Report. https://www.imd.org/contentassets/d4b328f064c844cd864a79369ba8405a/digital-vortex.pdf

บุญธรรม ภัทราจารุกุล, หุ่นยนต์อุตสาหกรรม, กรุงเทพ, ซีเอ็ดยูเคชั่น, 2556.

ศูนย์เทคโนโลยีอิเล็กทรอนิกส์และคอมพิวเตอร์แห่งชาติ, ยุทธศาสตร์การพัฒนาวิทยาการหุ่นยนต์และระบบอัตโนมัติ (พ.ศ. 2551-2555), 2551.

Appendix

Figure 1 Dinsow Robot

Picture resource from CT Asia Robotic https://www.dinsow.com/about/

A picture containing indoor, blue, automaton Description automatically generated

Figure 2 Ohm Robot

Picture resource from Thailand Board of Investment (2019) https://www.boi.go.th/upload/content/automation_5a4fa9cec04d6.pdf

A picture containing person, toy, doll Description automatically generated

Figure 3 Fhasai Robot

Picture resource from Thailand Board of Investment (2019) https://www.boi.go.th/upload/content/automation_5a4fa9cec04d6.pdf

รูปภาพประกอบด้วย ข้อความ, หุ่นยนต์ คำอธิบายที่สร้างโดยอัตโนมัติ

Figure 4 Chang Tam Robot

Picture resource from Creativemove

https://www.creativemove.com/design/changpood-changkui-changtum/

Figure 5 Chang Phood Robot

Picture resource from Creativemove

https://www.creativemove.com/design/changpood-changkui-changtum/

Figure 6 Chang Kui Robot

Picture resource from Creativemove

https://www.creativemove.com/design/changpood-changkui-changtum/

Figure 7 Hajime Robot

Picture resource from Wongnai.com

https://www.wongnai.com/articles/buffet-roastngrill

Figure 8 Sandee Delivery Bot

Picture resource from Sansiri PLC

https://www.facebook.com/sansirifamily/photos/sandee-delivery-robot -น้องแสนดี-หุ่นยนต์ส่งของอัจฉริยะตัวแรกของเอเชีย-ที่พัฒนาขึ/10155039214020334/

Figure 9 Sevy Bot ( Maeng Mum Robot)

Picture resource from Mangozero

https://www.mangozero.com/7-eleven-flagship-store-pim/

รูปภาพประกอบด้วย ข้อความ, ในอาคาร, บุคคล, ฉาก คำอธิบายที่สร้างโดยอัตโนมัติ

Figure 10 Sevy Bot ( Sin Samut Robot)

Picture resource from Brandbuffet

https://www.brandbuffet.in.th/2018/12/new-flagship-store-seven-eleven-at-pattaya/

Figure 11 Choo Jai Robot

Picture resource from Office of The National Broadcasting and Telecommunications Commission

https://old.btfp.nbtc.go.th/announcement/detail/1310

รูปภาพประกอบด้วย ข้อความ, บุคคล คำอธิบายที่สร้างโดยอัตโนมัติ

Figure 12 Lisa Robot

Picture resource from Prachachat Online

https://www.prachachat.net/ict/news-288121

Figure 13 Alex Robot

Picture resource from Prachachat Online

https://www.prachachat.net/ict/news-189418

A white robot with a screen Description automatically generated

Figure 14 DoctoSight 1 Robot

Picture resource from Matichon Online

https://www.matichon.co.th/publicize/news_2164766

A white machine with a screen Description automatically generated

Figure 15 DoctoSight 2 Robot

Picture resource from Matichon Online

https://www.matichon.co.th/publicize/news_2164766

Figure 16 FIBO Against Covid-19: FACO or Mod Boriraksa Robot Prototype

(from left) Sofa Robot, Carver Robot and Service Robot

Picture resource from Engineering Today

https://www.engineeringtoday.net/faco-robots-fibo-against-covid-19-ready-to-assist-frontline-healthcare-personnel-to-combat-the-outbreak-at-the-hospitals/

รูปภาพประกอบด้วย พื้น คำอธิบายที่สร้างโดยอัตโนมัติ

Figure 17 Pinto Robot

Picture resource from Info Quest

https://www.infoquest.co.th/2020/11392

Figure 18 Krajok Robot

Picture resource from Matichon Online

https://www.matichon.co.th/education/news_2127854

Figure 19 Ninja Robot

Picture resource from New York Post

https://nypost.com/2020/03/20/thailand-hospitals-use-ninja-robots-to-fight-coronavirus/

Figure 20 Tham Robot

Picture resource from Thammasat University

https://tu.ac.th/thammasat-tse-tham-robot-covid-19

Figure 21 CMU Aiyara Robot

Picture resource from Chiang Mai University

https://www.cmu.ac.th/th/article/8cc909fa-3994-445d-aa5d-bda43a64b9bc

Figure 22 Sunburst UV Bots

Picture resource from Fraser Property

https://www.frasersproperty.co.th/en/updates/company-news/455/frasers-property-thailand-rolls-out-uv-disinfecting-mobile-robots-at-its-properties-in-all-business-classes

Figure 23 (from left) K9 Robot, Robot for Car (ROC), PP Robot, and Lisa Robot

Picture resource from Thai Publica

https://thaipublica.org/2020/06/ais-ai-5g-pr-16-6-2563/

Figure 24 Service Robot at Penguin Eat Shabu

Picture resource from Mr.Thanopong Vongchinsri (Tor), Penguin Eat Shabu Owner

https://www.facebook.com/TORPENGUIN/

Figure 25 Black Canyon Robot

Picture resource from Black Canyon Thailand

https://www.blackcanyonthai.com/news_show.aspx?id=305

Figure 26 (left -right) Spicy, Caesar and Cheese Robot at Sizzler Thailand

Picture resource from Brand Inside Asia

https://brandinside.asia/sizzler-robot-in-restaurant/

Figure 27 Robasta Café Robot

Picture resource from Robasta Café

https://www.facebook.com/robostacafe/

Figure 28 Service Robot at Suki Teenoi

Picture resource from Suki Teenoi Thailand

https://www.facebook.com/sukiteenoithailand/photos/3201865203435804

Figure 29 Niya Robot

Picture resource from Samyan Mirtown

https://www.samyan-mitrtown.com/2021/03/26/นีญ่า-หุ่นยนต์อัจฉริยะ/

Figure 30 Service Robot at Praram 9 Kaiyang Restaurant

Picture resource from Bangkok Biz News

https://www.bangkokbiznews.com/business/970393

Figure 31 Service Robot at You & I Premium Suki Buffet

Picture resource from Gourmet and Cuisine

https://www.gourmetandcuisine.com/going_out_eating/detail/1551

Figure 32 Tem Jai Robot

Picture resource from Central Food Retail Group (CFG)

https://www.linkedin.com/company/central-food-retail-group/posts/?feedView=videos

Figure 33 Pui Fai Robot

Picture resource from Insider Retail Asia

https://insideretail.asia/2021/11/12/true-coffees-first-flagship-store-opens-doors-featuring-robot-barista/

Figure 34 True 5G Serving Bot Agent

Picture resource from True Digital Group

https://www.facebook.com/TDGgroup/photos/1357236134737406/

Figure 35 Sook Jai Robot, Pakkard Robot and Setto Robot

Picture resource from Manager Online

https://mgronline.com/business/detail/9650000007664

Comments
0
comment
No comments here
Why not start the discussion?